1992-1997 of release
Repair and car operation
+ General data
+ 1. Maintenance
+ 2. Engine
+ 3. Six-cylinder V6 engines
+ 4. Major maintenance of engines
+ 5. Cooling and heating
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Ignition system
+ 8. Toxicity fall
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. Automatic transmission
+ 11. Coupling and power shafts
+ 12. Brake system
+ 13. Suspension bracket
+ 14. Body
- 15. Electric equipment
15.2. General information
15.3. Electric chains
- 15.4. Detection of not closed chain
15.4.2. Detection of a rupture of a chain
15.4.3. Detection of a source of short circuit
15.4.4. Detection of bad grounding
15.5. Safety locks
+ 15.7. Multipurpose switches of a steering column
+ 15.8. Ignition lock
15.9. Switch of a heater of back glass
15.10. Check of a heater of back glass
15.11. Radio receiver
15.14. Replacement of bulbs of headlights
15.15. Adjustment of light of headlights
+ 15.17. Replacement of bulbs of an incandescence
+ 15.18. Screen wiper engine
15.19. Combination of devices
15.20. Sound signal
15.21. System cruise control
15.22. Window regulators with an electric drive
15.23. System of the central blocking of locks
15.24. Rear-view mirrors with the electric drive
15.25. Safety airbag
+ 15.26. Electric equipment schemes
The usual electric chain consists of an electric element, switches, the relay, engines, safety locks, automatic switches, wires and sockets which connect an electric element to the accumulator and a body. For the help by search of sources of malfunction of system of electric equipment, at the end of the management schemes of electric equipment of the car are provided.
Before to try to define a malfunction source, in the beginning study the corresponding scheme of electric equipment for receiving idea of the elements established in this chain. The circle of possible sources of malfunction can be narrowed if to check functioning of other elements entering into this chain. If some elements or chains выхолят out of operation at the same time, a problem, obviously, consist in a safety lock, the general for these chains or elements, or contact to a body.
Electric problems are usually caused by the simple reasons, such, as the weakened or rusted sockets, absence of contact to a body, the fused safety locks, the melted burned-through crossing point or the faulty relay. Visually check a condition of all safety locks, wires and sockets in the failed chain before to start check of other elements. Use electric equipment schemes for definition of what of trailer clips are necessary for checking for detection of a source of malfunction.
The main tools necessary for detection of a source of malfunction, the tester or the voltmeter (a bulb on 12 volts and pair of wires with щупами on the ends, also can be used for carrying out some checks) are; ohmmeter; the battery and a set of wires with щупами, a cap puncture, it is desirable with the automatic switch or a safety lock which is used for round of checked wires or elements.
For detection of the reason of unreliable work any of elements (usually because of bad connection or pollution of contacts, or), it is possible to inspect the damaged isolation by stirring of wires. It is necessary to shake a wire by a hand to check, whether there is a malfunction at wire movement. Such method it is possible to narrow a circle of possible sources of malfunction to any wire.
Along with problems because of bad connection of the wires, two main types of malfunctions can take place in electric equipment system – the opened chain or short circuit.
Problems with the opened chain appear as a result of break in an electric equipment chain that interrupts current course. The opened chain will cause shutdown of an element of electric equipment.
Problems with short circuit are caused by short circuit of a site of a chain that leads to leakage of a current from other chain, usually directly on a body. Short circuit is usually caused by a rupture of isolation of wires that allows a wire to concern other wire or any earthed element, for example a body. Short circuit usually leads to a peregoraniye of the corresponding safety lock.